Chemistry SS 2
Topic: CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS
Atomic structure of carbon: carbon is the element in the periodic table . The nucleus of its atom is composed of six proton and six neutron surrounded by six electrons.
Carbon atoms are able to catenate i.e join to one another by covalent bonds in a continuous fashion, the phenomenon is called catenation. Carbon occurs in nature as a free element in pure form as diamond and graphite which is usually mined. It also occurs in the impure form as charcoal.
ALLOTROPES OF CARBON
Allotropes is defined as the existence of an element which is more than one form in the same physical state. The two crystalline allotropes of carbon are diamond and gravite.
In diamond, each carbon atom is at the centre of a regular tetrahedral and covalently bonded to four other atoms in a strong compact fashion. The covalent linking between the atom is continuous : to produce a single infinite tightly locked 3- dimensional glant molecule which has a network of Octahedral structure
PROPERTIES OF DIAMOND
1.Pure diamond is hard, colourless and transparent
- It is insoluble in any solvent
- It does not conduct electricity
- It forms Octahedral crystals with high refractive index
USES OF DIAMOND
- It is used in cutting glasses drilling rock, boring hole, and making bearing in engines.
- Because of its high refractive index and amazing metallic lustre, it is used in jewelries